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Interrupt and Exception Handling

wait()/exit()

  • We often consider wait() and exit() together, since they combine to remove any trace of a process from the system.

  • Until a process both calls exit() and has its exit code collected via wait() traces of it remain on the system:

    • Its return code is retained by the kernel.

    • Its process ID (or PID) is also retained. Why?

  • Processes that have exit()ed but not had their exit code collected are called zombies. (Ooh, scary!)

  • wait()/exit() also present an interesting synchronization problem you will solve for ASST2.

    • Calls to wait() (by the parent) and exit() (by the child) may interleave in the kernel.

    • You must guarantee that the parent can retrieve the exit code successfully.

wait()/exit() Issues

  • What happens if a process’s parent exits before it does?

    • The "orphaned" process is assigned the init process as a parent, which will collect its exit code when it exits. Referred to as reparenting.

  • How do we prevent zombies from taking over the machine?

    • A processes parent receives the SIGCHLD signal when a child calls exit(), alerting it to the chance to retrieve the child’s exit status.

    • On some systems a process can choose to have its children automatically reaped by ignoring this signal.

    • On bash the relevant command is the appropriately-named disown. This allows children to continue running as daemons even after bash exits.

What If I Don’t Want to wait()?

  • Parent may want to peek at the exit status of its child, just to check on it. (Are you dead yet? Are you dead yet?)

  • Systems support a non-blocking wait() for this purpose:

    • Blocking wait() will block until the child exits, unless it has already exited in which case it returns immediately.

    • Non-Blocking wait() will not block. Instead, its return status indicates if the child has exited and, if so, what the exit code was.

Our Simple Shell

  • Disclaimer: this is C-like pseudo-code. It will not compile or run! (But it’s not far off.)

while (1) {
  input = readLine();
  returnCode = fork();
  if (returnCode == 0) {
    exec(input);
  } else {
    wait(returnCode);
  }
}

Aside: errno

Where’s exit()?
  • There is potential confusion between kernel system calls and wrappers implemented by libc:

    • _exit() (system call) v. exit() (C library function call).

  • The C library wraps system calls and changes their return codes.

  • The C library is what sets errno, not the kernel.

Multiplexing and Abstracting the CPU

For the next several weeks we’ll be looking at how the operating system manages the processor:

  • What are the limitations or problems with the hardware resource that the operating system is trying to address? There is only one (or at least, no that many) processor(s)!

  • What are the mechanisms necessary to allow the processor to be shared? Interrupts and context switching.

  • What are the consequences for programmers of processor multiplexing? Concurrency and synchronization.

  • How do we design good policies ensuring that processor sharing meets the needs of the user? Processor scheduling.

Today: Operating System Privilege

  • Earlier we alluded to the fact that the operating system is like a normal program with some special privileges.

  • In fact, implementing most of the process-related system calls we discussed last week does not require these special privileges!

    • If you don’t believe me, look at user-space threading libraries. They provide functionality very similar to the fork(), exec(), exit() and wait() system calls we discussed.

  • So why does the operating system need special privileges?

Multiplexing Requires Privilege

  • In many cases implementing abstractions does not require special privileges.

  • However, the operating systems other task—multiplexing resources— does.

  • In order to divide resources between processes the system needs a trusted and privileged entity that can:

    • divide the resources, and

    • enforce the division.

No Trusto Processo

  • Why can’t processes share resources without a privileged arbiter?

  • Some processes are:

    • malicious—"Hey, I’d like some more memory, so I’ll use yours!"

    • buggy—"Um, is this my memory or your memory? I’m not sure but I’ll just use it and hope things turn out OK…​"

Privileged Execution

  • CPUs implement a mechanism allowing the operating system to manage resources: kernel (or privileged) mode.

  • Being in kernel mode may mean that the executing code

    • has access to special instructions, and

    • has a different view of memory.

Special Instructions

  • When the CPU is in kernel mode there are special instructions that can be executed.

    • These instructions usually modify important global state controlling how resources are shared.

  • When the CPU is not in kernel mode it does not allow these instructions to be executed.

    • We will see what happens when an unprivileged process tries to execute a privileged instruction in a minute.

Protection Boundaries

  • The goal:

    • only trusted kernel code runs in kernel mode;

    • untrusted user code always runs in user mode.

  • The CPU implements mechanisms to transition between user and kernel mode which we will discuss during the rest of today’s class.

Aside: Fine-Grained Protection

  • Many modern CPUs implement more than two protection modes.

  • x86 processors actually have four protection "rings" from Ring 0 (most privileged) to Ring 3 (least privileged).

  • For many years operating systems running on x86 architectures only used Ring 0 (kernel mode) and Ring 3 (user mode).

  • Recently this has become more interesting because of operating system virtualization, so we will return to this.

    • But for now, you can think of processors as having two privilege modes: kernel mode and user mode.

Terminology

  • When we say "application" we refer to code running without privileges or in unprivileged or "user" mode.

  • When we say "kernel" we mean code running in privileged or kernel mode.

  • What makes the kernel special? It is the one application allowed to executed code in kernel mode!

Bootstrapping Privilege

Why is the operating system allowed to run in kernel mode?
  • You installed your machine that way! This is what it means to install an operating system: choose a particular application to grant special privileges to.

  • On boot the CPU starts out executing the kernel code in privileged mode, which is how privilege is bootstrapped.

  • The kernel is responsible for lowering the privilege level before executing user code.

More Terminology: Traps

  • When a normal application does something that causes the system to enter kernel mode we sometimes refer to this as trapping into the kernel.

  • I frequently think about the thread that trapped into the kernel as running in the kernel after the trap occurs.

    • On some level this is accurate: it is the same stream of instructions.

    • On some level this is not accurate: the kernel thread has its own stack and has saved the state of the trapping user thread, so in a way the user thread has been paused while the kernel performs some task on its behalf.

  • Decide the way to think about this that is the most effective for you.

Privilege Transitions

  • The transition into the kernel or into privileged mode typically occurs for one of three reasons:

    • a hardware device requests attention—hardware interrupt

    • software requests attention—software interrupt or system call

    • software needs attention—software exception

  • What is the difference between requesting and needing attention?

Hardware Interrupts

  • Hardware interrupts are used to signal that a particular device needs attention:

    • a disk read completed, or

    • a network packet was received, or

    • a timer fired.

  • Processors implement multiple interrupt lines, input wires on which a logic transition (or level) will trigger an interrupt.

Interrupt Handling

When an interrupt is triggered (interrupt request, or IRQ), the processor:
  1. enters privileged mode,

  2. records state necessary to process the interrupt,

  3. jumps to a pre-determined memory location and begins executing instructions.

The instructions that the processor executes when an interrupt fires are called the interrupt service routine (ISR).


Created 2/17/2017
Updated 8/17/2017
Commit 4eceaab // History // View
Built 2/14/2016 @ 19:00 EDT